Drug information of Calcium pantothenate

Calcium pantothenate


Calcium Pantothenate is the calcium salt of the water-soluble vitamin B5, ubiquitously found in plants and animal tissues with antioxidant property. Pentothenate is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and a part of the vitamin B2 complex. Vitamin B5 is a growth factor and is essential for various metabolic functions, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids. This vitamin is also involved in the synthesis of cholesterol, lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin.

Mechanism of effect

Pantothenic acid is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE

Pharmacodynamic

Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA). CoA is thought to act as a carrier molecule, allowing the entry of acyl groups into cells. This is of critical importance as these acyl groups are used as substrates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate energy and in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and acetylcholine. Additionally, CoA is part of acyl carrier protein (ACP), which is required in the synthesis of fatty acids in addition to CoAs use as a substrate.

Pantothenic acid in the form of CoA is also required for acylation and acetylation, which, for example, are involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation, respectively.

Since pantothenic acid participates in a wide array of key biological roles, it may have numerous wide-ranging effects.

Pharmacokinetics

Mechanism of action

Pantothenic acid is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.

 

Absorption

Dietary pantothenic acid is primarily in the form of CoA or ACP and must be converted into free pantothenic acid for absorption. CoA and ACP are hydrolyzed into 4'-phosphopantetheine which is then dephosphorylated into pantetheine and subsequently hydrolyzed again to free pantothenic acid by Pantetheinase in the intestinal lumen. Free pantothenic acid is absorbed into intestinal cells via a saturable, sodium-dependent active transport system with passive diffusion acting as a secondary pathway. As intake increases up to 10-fold absorption rate can decrease to as low as 10% due to transporter saturation.

Drug indications

Effective for
  • Pantothenic acid deficiency. Taking pantothenic acid by mouth prevents and treats pantothenic acid deficiency.
Possibly Ineffective for
  • Skin reactions from radiation therapy. Applying dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, to areas of irritated skin does not seem to help treat skin reactions from radiation therapy.
Insufficient Evidence for
  • Athletic performance. Some research suggests that taking pantothenic acid in combination with pantethine and thiamine does not improve muscular strength or endurance in well-trained athletes.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is conflicting evidence regarding the usefulness of pantothenic acid in combination with large doses of other vitamins for the treatment of ADHD.
  • Constipation. Early research suggests that taking dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, by mouth daily or receiving dexpanthenol shots can help treat constipation.
  • Dry eyes. Early research suggests that using specific eye drops (Siccaprotect) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not improve most symptoms of dry eyes.
  • Eye trauma. Some evidence suggests that applying gel or drops containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, reduces some symptoms of eye trauma. However, not all research is consistent.
  • Osteoarthritis. Early research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis.
  • Recovery after surgery. There is inconsistent evidence on the potential benefits of taking pantothenic acid after surgery. Taking pantothenic acid or dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not seem to improve bowel function after stomach surgery. However, taking dexpanthenol by mouth might reduce other symptoms after surgery, such as sore throat.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Developing research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce the symptoms of arthritis in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Nasal dryness. Early research suggests that using a specific spray (Nasicur) that contains dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, helps relieve nasal dryness.
  • Sinus infection. Early research suggests that using a nasal spray containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, after sinus surgery reduces discharge from the nose, but not other symptoms.
  • Skin irritation. Research on the effects of pantothenic acid for preventing skin irritations is not consistent. Some early research suggests that a specific product (Bepanthol Handbalsam) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, does not prevent skin irritation when applied to the skin. However, other research suggests that dexpanthenol ointment can prevent skin irritation.
  • Sprains. Early research suggests that using a specific ointment (Hepathrombin-50,000-Salbe Adenylchemie) containing dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, as well as heparin and allantoin reduces swelling related to ankle sprains.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Allergies.
  • Hair loss.
  • Asthma.
  • Heart problems.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Lung disorders.
  • Colitis.
  • Eye infections (conjunctivitis).
  • Convulsions.
  • Kidney disorders.
  • Dandruff.
  • Depression.
  • Diabetic problems.
  • Enhancing immune function.
  • Headache.
  • Hyperactivity.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Inability to sleep (insomnia).
  • Irritability.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Muscular dystrophy.
  • Muscle cramps.

Dosage

    • As a dietary supplement: 5-10 mg of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5).

    Recommended daily intakes for pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) are as follows: Infants 0-6 months, 1.7 mg; infants 7-12 months, 1.8 mg; children 1-3 years, 2 mg; children 4-8 years, 3 mg; children 9-13 years, 4 mg; men and women 14 years and older, 5 mg; pregnant women, 6 mg; and breastfeeding women, 7 mg.

Interactions

Clarithromycin , Roxithromycin
moderate interactions of pantothenic acid include:
• azithromycin
• clarithromycin
• erythromycin base
• erythromycin ethylsuccinate
• erythromycin lactobionate
• erythromycin stearate
• roxithromycin

Pregnancy level

Use of pantothenic acid during pregnancy and while breastfeeding has not been studied. Consult your doctor.

Breast feeding warning

Use of pantothenic acid during pregnancy and while breastfeeding has not been studied. Consult your doctor.


Ask a Pharmacist


User's questions
    No comments yet.