Drug information of insulin regular

insulin regular

Drug group: blood sugar

Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the body. It works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Regular insulin is a short-acting form of insulin.Regular insulin is used to treat diabetes

Mechanism of effect

Regulation of glucose metabolism is the primary activity of insulin. Insulin lowers blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulins inhibit lipolysis, proteolysis, and gluconeogenesis, and enhance protein synthesis and conversion of excess glucose into fat.

Pharmacodynamic

Insulin regular is a short-acting insulin. When subcutaneously administered, the onset of action (as evidenced by a decrease in glucose level) occurs 30 minutes post-dose. Maximal effect occurs between 1.5 and 3.5 hours post-dose. The glucose-lowering effect occurs 8 hours post-dose. Compared to other rapid-acting insulin analogs, insulin regular has a slower onset of action and longer duration of action

Pharmacokinetics

Insulin is generally well absorbed.Vd is 0.15 L/kg. Insulin is predominantly cleared by metabolic degradation via a receptor-mediated process

Dosage

Regular insulin is a short-acting insulin and is generally injected subcutaneously 2-5 times daily within 30-60 minutes before a meal Insulin dosage should be individualized to achieve/maintain a target blood glucose level and is determined by various factors including body weight, body fat, physical activity, insulin sensitivity, blood glucose levels, and target blood glucose

Alerts

1-Any change of insulin should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type (e.g., regular, NPH, analog, etc.), species, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in dosage 2-extreme caution must be observed in the measurement of dosage because inadvertent overdose may result in serious adverse reaction or life-threatening hypoglycemia 3-Fluid retention and heart failure with concomitant use of PPAR-gamma agonists:Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate heart failure

Points of recommendation

1-Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of all insulin therapies. Severe hypoglycemia may lead to unconsciousness and/or convulsions and may result in temporary or permanent impairment of brain function or death 2-Hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or hyperosmolar coma may develop if the patient takes less insulin regular than needed to control blood glucose levels 3-Insulin stimulates potassium movement into the cells, possibly leading to hypokalemia, that left untreated may cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death 4-Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur with insulin products 5-Frequent glucose monitoring and insulin dose reduction may be required in patients with renal or hepatic impairment

Pregnancy level

B


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