Drug information of Kanamycin

Kanamycin

Drug group: Aminoglycosides

Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside bacteriocidal antibiotic, available in oral, intravenous, and intramuscular forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. Kanamycin is isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus and its most commonly used form is kanamycin sulfate.

Mechanism of effect

Aminoglycosides like kanamycin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Specifically Kanamycin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base in the anticodon of tRNA. This leads to interference with the initiation complex, misreading of mRNA so incorrect amino acids are inserted into the polypeptide leading to nonfunctional or toxic peptides and the breakup of polysomes into nonfunctional monosomes.

Pharmacodynamic

Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter.

In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Kanamycin is rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection and peak serum levels are generally reached within approximately one hour. Poor oral and topical absorption except with severe skin damage.

Excretion: urine

Half life:2.5 hours

Dosage

Adult and pediatric

IV Administration: 5-7.5 mg/kg/day divided q8-12hr; not to exceed 15 mg/kg/day divided q6-12hr; administer slowly  

IM Administration: 5-7.5 mg/kg/dose divided q8-12hr; not to exceed 15 mg/kg/day IM divided q12hr at equally divided intervals; continuously high blood levels are desired; daily dose of 15 mg/kg may be given divided q6-8hr

Aerosol: 250 mg q6-12hr by nebulization

Drug contraindications

Hypersensitivity

Alerts

Auditory toxicity more common with kanamycin than with streptomycin and capreomycin; monthly audiometry is recommended while patients are being treated with this drug; vestibular toxicity is rare; renal toxicity occurs at a frequency similar to that of capreomycin; regular monitoring of serum creatinine recommended

Renal impairment

Myasthenia gravis

Vestibular/cochlear implant

Nephrotoxic agents

Black Box Warnings

Neurotoxicity, manifested as both bilateral auditory and vestibular ototoxicity, can occur in patients with preexisting renal damage and in patients with normal renal function treated at higher doses and/or for periods longer than those recommended. High-frequency deafness usually occurs first and can be detected only by audiometric testing. Vertigo may occur and may be evidence of vestibular injury

Aminoglycosides are potentially nephrotoxic. Risk is greater in patients with impaired renal function and in those who receive high doses or prolonged therapy. Rarely, nephrotoxicity may not become apparent until the first few days after cessation of therapy

Use with caution in premature infants and neonates because of renal immaturity and the resulting prolongation of serum half-life of the drug

Neuromuscular blockade and respiratory paralysis have been reported following parenteral injection, topical instillation (as in orthopedic and abdominal irrigation or in local treatment of empyema), and oral use of aminoglycosides, especially when given soon after anesthesia or muscle relaxants. If blockage occurs, calcium salts may reverse these phenomena, but mechanical respiratory assistance may be necessary

Avoid concurrent or sequential use of neurotoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs including other aminoglycosides (eg, amikacin, streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, puromomycin

Cumulative listing of drugs to avoid from all aminoglycoside package inserts includes amphotericin B, bacitracin, cephaloridine, cisplatin, colistin, polymyxin B, vancomycin, and viomycin. Avoid potent diuretics (eg, ethacrynic acid, furosemide) because they increase risk of ototoxicity. When administered intravenously, diuretics may enhance aminoglycoside toxicity by altering antibiotic concentrations in serum and tissue

Points of recommendation

If you are allergic to sulfites, talk with your doctor. Some products have sulfites.

Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.

This medicine may cause harm to the unborn baby if you take it while you are pregnant.

Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. You will need to talk about any risks to your baby.

Pregnancy level

D


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