Drug information of Ammonium chloride
Mechanism of effect
- Increases acidity by increasing the amount of hydrogen ion concentrations.
- Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant in cough medicine. Its expectorant action is caused by irritative action on the bronchial mucosa, which causes the production of excess respiratory tract fluid and make it easier to cough it up.
Systemic acidifier. In liver ammonium chloride is converted into urea with the liberation of hydrogen ions ( which lowers the pH) and chloride.
Metabolism: Ammonium ion is converted to urea in the liver; chloride ion replaces bicarbonate
Adult and Pediatric
Hypochloremic States & Metabolic Alkalosis
mEq of chloride ion (as ammonium chloride-NH4Cl) = [0.2 L/kg X BW (kg)] X [103 - observed serum chloride]; administer 50% of dose over 12 hr and reevaluate
103 is the average normal serum chloride concentration (mEq/L) and 0.2 L/kg is the estimated chloride volume of distribution
Drug contraindicationsliver failure , renal failure
Side effectsnausea , vomiting , Seizures , vertigo , Injection-site reaction , metabolic acidosis , Abdominal pain , Rash , Hypocalcemia
InteractionsDextroamphetamine , Methylenedioxymethamfetamine , Methamphetamine , lisdexamfetamine , Blonanserin , dichlorphenamide
- Pulmonary insufficiency, cardiac edema, severe renal impairment (do not give NH4Cl alone if concomitant Na loss)
- Risk of ammonia toxicity (monitor)
- Monitor patients CO2 combining power prior to IV administration to avoid serious acidosis
Related drugsPotassium chloride , sodium phosphates , Sodium phosphate for bowel , Potassium Phosphate
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