Drug information of Polio vaccine, inactivated

Polio vaccine, inactivated

Drug group: Vaccines

Polio affects the central nervous system and spinal cord. It can cause muscle weakness and paralysis. Polio is a life threatening condition because it can paralyze the muscles that help you breathe.

The polio vaccine is used to help prevent these diseases in children and adults.

This vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

Polio vaccine is for use in adults and children who are at least 6 weeks old.

Like any vaccine, the polio vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

Mechanism of effect

As an inactivated virus vaccine, poliovirus vaccine induces active immunity against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 infection

Drug indications

Poliovirus prevention:
Active immunization of infants (≥6 weeks [US labeling]; ≥2 months [Canadian labeling]), children, adolescents, and adults for prevention of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3.

Dosage

Usual Adult Dose for Poliomyelitis Prophylaxis
Primary vaccination series:
Two 0.5 mL doses, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, at a 1 to 2 month interval, and a third dose 6 to 12 months later
-If less than 3 months but more than 2 months are available before protection is needed, give 3 doses at least 1 month apart
-If only 1 or 2 months are available, give two doses at least one month apart
-If less than a month is available, give a single dose
Incompletely vaccinated adults (at increased risk of exposure, with at least one dose of oral polio vaccine or fewer than 3 doses of inactivated polio vaccine)
One 0.5 mL dose, intramuscularly or subcutaneously
-Give additional doses, at least one month apart, to complete the primary series if time permits
Completely vaccinated adults (at increased risk of exposure)
One 0.5 mL dose, intramuscularly or subcutaneously
Usual Pediatric Dose for Poliomyelitis Prophylaxis
6 weeks and older:
Primary vaccination series:
Four 0.5 mL doses, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 to 18 months, and 4 to 6 years
Previously vaccinated children (incomplete polio vaccination):
Give sufficient additional doses to complete the primary series
-There is no need to start the series over again, regardless of time elapsed between doses

Drug contraindications

Safety and efficacy have not been established in patients younger than 6 weeks

Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, neomycin, streptomycin and polymyxin B; anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock occurring within 24 hours of administration of 1 dose of vaccine; acute, febrile illness (excluding minor illness with or without low-grade fever

Side effects

Percentages noted with concomitant administration of DTP or DTaP vaccine and observed within 48 hours of injection.
>10%:
Central nervous system: Irritability, fatigue
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia
Local: Tenderness at injection site, swelling at injection site
1%
 to 10%
Central nervous system: Excessive crying
Gastrointestinal: Vomiting
Local: Erythema at injection site
Miscellaneous: Fever
<1%
, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Agitation, anaphylactic shock, anaphylaxis, arthralgia, drowsiness, febrile seizures, headache, hypersensitivity reaction, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, paresthesia, seizure, skin rash, urticaria

Fingolimod, Immunosuppressants, Siponimod, Venetoclax

Alerts

You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing live or inactivated polio virus, or if you are allergic to 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B.

You should not receive this vaccine if you have moderate or severe illness with a fever

Vaccine administration that is too high on the upper arm may cause shoulder injury (eg, shoulder bursitis, tendinitis) resulting in shoulder pain and reduced range of motion following injection. Use proper injection technique for vaccines administered in the deltoid muscle (eg, injecting in the central, thickest part of the muscle) to reduce the risk of shoulder injury related to vaccine administration 

Syncope has been reported with use of injectable vaccines and may result in serious secondary injury (eg, skull fracture, cerebral hemorrhage); typically reported in adolescents and young adults and within 15 minutes after vaccination. Procedures should be in place to avoid injuries from falling and to restore cerebral perfusion if syncope occurs

Use with caution in patients with bleeding disorders (including thrombocytopenia); bleeding/hematoma may occur from IM administration; if the patient receives antihemophilia or other similar therapy, IM injection can be scheduled shortly after such therapy is administered

Points of recommendation

You should not receive this vaccine if:
you have moderate or severe illness with a fever
you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing live or inactivated polio virus
you are allergic to 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B.

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life threatening allergic reaction after the first shot

To make sure polio vaccine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:
a weak immune system caused by disease, bone marrow transplant, or by using certain medicines or receiving cancer treatments; or
a history of Guillain Barré syndrome (or if this was a reaction to a previous vaccine

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine

This vaccine is given as an injection (shot) under the skin or into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor's office or other clinic setting

Polio vaccine is recommended for all children. It is also recommended for adults in the following situations:
people who have never been vaccinated against polio
people who travel to areas where polio is common
people who handle polio virus in a laboratory or other setting
people who treat patients who have polio

Polio vaccine is given in a series of shots. Children should receive a total of 4 shots. The first shot is usually given when the child is 2 months old. The booster shots are then given at 4 months, 6 to 18 months, and then at 4 to 6 years of age

Adults who have never been vaccinated against polio should receive a total of 3 shots. Booster shots should be given 1 to 2 months after the first shot, and then 6 to 12 months after the second shot

Adults who may have received prior polio vaccine(s) should receive 1 or 2 shots, no matter how long it has been since the first vaccination(s).
10-Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor's instructions or the schedule recommended by the health department of the state you live in

Store under refrigeration 2°C to 8°C (35°F to 46°F); do not freeze. Protect from light

Pregnancy level

C

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether this vaccine will harm an unborn baby. However, if you are at a high risk for infection with polio during pregnancy, your doctor should determine whether you need this vaccine.

Breast feeding warning

It is not known whether polio vaccine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Drug forms

Ipol

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