Drug information of Pholcodine
Pholcodine Linctus works well on an irritating, dry and tickly cough, by providing soothing relief. As a cough suppressant, it stops the urge to cough and also relieves chest irritation.
This medication works by clearing mucus, dust particles and bacteria from both throat and lungs, the presence of which irritate the airways and make breathing more difficult. However, there are times when there is no mucus present, and no phlegm released, resulting in a purposeless cough, accompanied by pain and frustration. In these cases, pholcodine works by reducing the nerve signals which tell the coughing centre in the brain to try to clear what is not actually there.
Pholcodine should not be used at the same time as taking any other medicines for coughs or colds, as they could contain the same active ingredients and lead to you exceeding the daily recommendation. Also, cough expectorants can produce an opposite reaction and so advice should always be taken from your doctor or a pharmacist..
Mechanism of effect
Route of elimination
After oral administration of pholcodine, the serum concentration peaks and declines in a monoexponential manner. The percent of the dose excreted unchanged is of approximately 25-30%. Part of the administered dose is composed by metabolites that can be recovered in urine. From the administered dose, the fecal excretion corresponds to the 5% of the administered dose as unchanged pholcodine.1Half-life
After oral administration of 60 mg of pholcodine, the half-life in plasma, saliva and urine are 45, 55 and 45 hours respectively.1Clearance
After oral administration of 60 mg of pholcodine, the clearance rate was reported to be 126 ml/min.1
Adults: Cough suppressant for relief of acute non-productive cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection
Children of 6-12 years of age: Cough suppressant for relief of acute non-productive cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection.
Pholcodine should not be given to subjects in or at risk of developing respiratory failure as the sedative properties of pholcodine may exacerbate the condition.
Patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD, bronchiolitis or bronchiectasis due to sputum retention
Patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days of stopping such treatment (see also section 4.5).
Patients with hypersensitivity or idiosyncratic response to pholcodine or to any of the excipients.
Patients with liver disease since pholcodine is metabolised in the liver and the drug may accumulate.
Not to be used in children under the age of 6 years.
InteractionsRamipril , Rotigotine , Tolcapone
The reduction in blood pressure caused by antihypertensives may accentuate the hypotensive effects of pholcodine. Diuretics may have a similar effect. The sedative effects of central nervous system depressants may be increased by alcohol, barbiturates, hypnotics, narcotic analgesics, sedatives and tranquillisers (phenothiazines and tricyclic antidepressants).
Hypertensive crisis may be caused by concurrent use of pholcodine with monoamine – oxidase inhibitors therefore not to be used in patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping treatment.
Interaction with neuromuscular blocking agents (anaphylaxis) has been reported.
1. Should be used with caution by patients with liver or renal impairment
2. Ask a doctor before use if you suffer from a chronic or persistent cough, if you have asthma, suffering from acute asthma attack or where cough is accompanied by excessive secretions
3. Do not take with any other cough and cold medicine
4. Use of Pholcodine with alcohol or other CNS depressants may increase the effects on the CNS and cause toxicity in relatively smaller doses
5. Children and elderly patients should be supervised while taking this medication.
6. Caution is needed in patients with a history of drug abuse. Pholcodine is an opioid and addiction is observed with opioids as a class.
7. Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine.
8. Sunset yellow (E110) may cause allergic reactions.
9. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) including acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), which can be life-threatening or fatal, have been reported in patients treated with pholcodine, most likely in the first week. Patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms and monitored closely for skin reactions. If signs and symptoms suggestive of these reactions appear, this medicine should be withdrawn immediately.
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