Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) of Kyprolis (carfilzomib) for Injection in combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one to three lines of therapy. The FDA also approved Kyprolis as a single agent for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one or more lines of therapy. This FDA decision converts to full approval the initial accelerated approval Kyprolis received in July 2012 as a single agent.
"Kyprolis is the only approved therapy for relapsed multiple myeloma with proven efficacy as a single agent, doublet and triplet combination that is offered in a variety of doses to meet individual patient needs," said Sean E. Harper, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. "Importantly, this new approval supports the use of Kyprolis as a backbone therapy for the management of relapsed multiple myeloma, a difficult-to-treat blood cancer."
"Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease where relapse inevitably occurs and over time patients become resistant to treatments," said Dr. Ruben Niesvizky, director of the Multiple Myeloma Center at Weill Cornell Medicine and New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center. "As a clinician, I'm pleased with the tremendous progress that we have seen in the past 12 months in multiple myeloma treatment. This FDA approval is important because it provides physicians with flexible options for Kyprolis use in helping to manage this challenging disease."
The approval is based on results from the Phase 3 head-to-head ENDEAVOR study. This was a superiority trial in which the primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The data showed patients with relapsed multiple myeloma treated with Kyprolis and dexamethasone achieved 50 percent greater PFS of 18.7 months compared to 9.4 months in those receiving Velcade® (bortezomib) and dexamethasone (HR=0.53; 95 percent CI: 044, 0.65 p<0.0001), a current standard of care in relapsed multiple myeloma. Patients in the study were treated until disease progression. The most common adverse reactions (greater than or equal to 20 percent) in the Kyprolis arm were anemia, diarrhea, dyspnea, fatigue, insomnia, pyrexia and thrombocytopenia.
This new indication for Kyprolis is the second in six months. In July 2015, the FDA approved another expanded indication for Kyprolis in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received one to three prior lines of therapy.
Multiple myeloma is an incurable blood cancer, characterized by a recurring pattern of remission and relapse.1 It is a rare and very aggressive disease that accounts for approximately one percent of all cancers.2-4 In the U.S., there are nearly 90,000 people living with, or in remission from, multiple myeloma.5 Approximately, 26,850 Americans are diagnosed with multiple myeloma each year and 11,240 patient deaths are reported on an annual basis.5
The randomized ENDEAVOR (RandomizEd, OpeN Label, Phase 3 Study of Carfilzomib Plus DExamethAsone Vs Bortezomib Plus DexamethasOne in Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma) trial of 929 patients evaluated Kyprolis in combination with low-dose dexamethasone (Kd), versus bortezomib with low-dose dexamethasone in patients whose multiple myeloma has relapsed after at least one, but not more than three prior therapeutic regimens. The primary endpoint of the trial was PFS, defined as the time from treatment initiation to disease progression or death. In a clinical trial, measuring the PFS is one way to demonstrate how well a treatment works.6
As stated above, Kd was superior to bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) and demonstrated significantly longer PFS. Improvement in PFS in the Kd arm compared to the Vd arm was seen across all pre-specified subgroups, including bortezomib-naïve patients, those with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics and with or without prior transplantation.
Kd also demonstrated improvement over Vd for secondary endpoints, achieving a higher overall response rate (77 percent vs. 63 percent; p<0.0001) and lower rate of grade 2 or higher neuropathy events (6 percent [95 percent CI: 4, 8] vs. 32 percent [95 percent CI: 28, 36]). In the Kyprolis and bortezomib groups, 54.3 percent and 28.6 percent of patients achieved a very good partial response or better (p<0.0001), and 12.5 percent and 6.2 percent of patients achieved a complete response or better (p<0.0001), respectively. Overall survival data are not yet mature and continue to be monitored.
Treatment discontinuation due to adverse events and on-study deaths were comparable between the two arms. A number of known adverse drug reactions were reported at a higher rate in the Kyprolis group compared with the bortezomib group, including any-grade dyspnea, hypertension, pyrexia, and cough as were any-grade cardiac failure (grouped term; 8 percent vs. 3 percent) and acute renal failure (grouped term; 8 percent vs. 5 percent).
Rates of grade 3 or higher adverse events were 73 percent in the Kyprolis group and 67 percent in the bortezomib group. Grade 3 or higher adverse events of interest in the Kyprolis and bortezomib groups included hypertension (preferred term; 9 percent vs. 3 percent), dyspnea (preferred term; 5 percent vs. 2 percent), cardiac failure (grouped term; 5 percent vs. 2 percent), acute renal failure (grouped term; 4 percent vs. 3 percent), ischemic heart disease (grouped term; 2 percent vs. 2 percent) and pulmonary hypertension (grouped term; 0.6 percent vs. 0.2 percent).
Patients received treatment until progression with Kyprolis as a 30-minute infusion on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 of 28 day treatment cycles, along with low-dose dexamethasone (20 mg). For Cycle 1 only, Kyprolis was administered at 20 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2, and if tolerated followed by escalation to 56 mg/m2 from day 8. Patients who tolerated 56 mg/m2 in Cycle 1 were kept at this dose for subsequent cycles. Patients who received bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2) with low-dose dexamethasone (20 mg) were administered bortezomib subcutaneously or intravenously at the discretion of the investigator and in accordance with regulatory approval of bortezomib. More than 75 percent of the patients in the control arm received bortezomib subcutaneously. This study was conducted at 235 sites worldwide. For information about this trial, please visit www.clinicaltrials.gov under trial identification number NCT01568866.
About Kyprolis (carfilzomib)
Proteasomes play an important role in cell function and growth by breaking down proteins that are damaged or no longer needed.7 Kyprolis has been shown to block proteasomes, leading to an excessive build-up of proteins within cells.8 In some cells, Kyprolis can cause cell death, especially in myeloma cells because they are more likely to contain a higher amount of abnormal proteins.8 The irreversibility of Kyprolis' binding has also been shown to offer a more sustained inhibition of the targeted enzymes.9
Kyprolis is approved in the U.S. for the following:
In combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one to three lines of therapy.
As a single agent for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one or more lines of therapy.
Kyprolis is also approved in Argentina, Israel, Kuwait, Mexico, Thailand, Colombia, Korea, Canada and the European Union. Additional regulatory applications for Kyprolis are underway and have been submitted to health authorities worldwide.
Kyprolis is a product of Onyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Onyx Pharmaceuticals is a subsidiary of Amgen and holds development and commercialization rights to Kyprolis globally, excluding Japan.
For more information, please visit www.kyprolis.com.
Patient Support Program
Amgen is proud to offer Onyx Pharmaceuticals 360® (Onyx 360) which is a patient support program designed to provide personalized services to patients living with cancer. Upon enrollment, patients are paired with a dedicated Onyx 360 Oncology Nurse Ambassador who is trained to help navigate their treatment journey and address daily and long term concerns. Onyx 360 also provides access to a network of resources and third-party services including transportation, emotional support and financial and product reimbursement assistance. Onyx 360 services are provided to patients at no cost. For more information, please visit www.kyprolis.com/support-during-treatment.
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its biologics manufacturing expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
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