Comparison between Calcium Salts & Vitamin D

Comparison between Calcium Salts & Vitamin D

Comparison between Calcium Salts & Vitamin D

The benefits of calcium

  • Calcium also plays an important role in several other body functions, including:
  • Nerve signal transmission
  • Hormone release
  • Muscle contraction
  • Bloodvessel function
  • Bloodclotting
  • There's also some early evidence that calcium might lower blood pressureand help protect against colorectal and prostate However, these benefits have yet to be confirmed in studies.
  • Some studies suggest that calcium, along with vitamin D, may have benefits beyond bone health: perhaps protecting against cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure. But evidence about such health benefits is not definitive.
  • A high dietary calcium intake combined with vitamin D can increase bone density and reduce fractures in older women and, probably, men. The Institute of Medicine recommends that persons 19 to 50 years of age consume 1,000 mg per day of calcium and that persons older than 50 years consume 1,200 mg per day. The average American consumes less than 800 mg of calcium per day.

Calcium requirements

  • About 99 percent of the calcium in the body is stored in the bones and teeth. Calcium is best absorbed through the foods we eat and the beverages we drink. Not getting enough calcium can lead to the development of osteoporosis. Lifetime practices of eating foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, exercising, drinking caffeine-free beverages, limiting alcoholic beverage intake,and not smoking can help prevent osteoporosis.
  • How much calcium you need depends on your age and sex. Note that the upper limit in the chart represents the safe boundary — it's not how much you should aim to get. If you exceed the upper limit, you may increase your risk of health problems related to excessive calcium.

 

 What is the symptoms of lack of calcium?

  • Many people are at an increased risk for calcium deficiency as they age. This deficiency may be due to a variety of factors, including:
  • poor calcium intake over a long period of time, especially in childhood
  • medications that may decrease calcium absorption
  • dietary intolerance to foods rich in calcium
  • hormonal changes, especially in women
  • certain genetic factors
  • It’s important to ensure proper calcium intake at all ages

Types of calcium supplements

  • Several different kinds of calcium compounds are used in calcium supplements. Each compound contains varying amounts of the mineral calcium — referred to as elemental calcium. Common calcium supplements may be labeled as:
  • Calcium carbonate (40 percent elemental calcium)
  • Calcium citrate (21 percent elemental calcium)
  • Calcium gluconate (9 percent elemental calcium)
  • Calcium lactate (13 percent elemental calcium)
  • The two main forms of calcium supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is cheapest and therefore often a good first choice. Other forms of calcium in supplements include gluconate and lactate.
  • In addition, some calcium supplements are combined with vitamins and other minerals. For instance, some calcium supplements may also contain vitamin D or magnesium.

 

Which calcium salt is best absorbed?

  • Calcium citrate supplements are absorbed more easily than calcium carbonate. They can be taken on an empty stomach and are more readily absorbed by people who take acid-reducing heartburn medications. But because calcium citrate is only 21% calcium, you may need to take more tablets to get your daily requirement.
  • Calcium carbonateand calcium citrate are the optimal forms of supplement. Calcium carbonate should be taken with meals because it requires stomach acid to dissolve and absorb. Some find calcium carbonate
  • Calcium Carbonateprovides with 40% elemental calcium, better absorbed and well tolerated especially when taken with a meal. It is the most commonly used and least expensive calcium salt as cost is a consideration for many patients.
  • Your body must be able to absorb the calcium for it to be effective. All varieties of calcium supplements are better absorbed when taken in small doses (500 mg or less) at mealtimes. Calcium citrate is absorbed equally well when taken with or without food and is a form recommended for individuals with low stomach acid (more common in people over 50 or taking acid blockers), inflammatory bowel disease or absorption disorders.
  • Taking calcium with food in dosages of 500 mg or less increases absorption.
  • Foods such as spinach, rhubarb and wheat bran can decrease calcium absorption.
  • Calcium can interfere with absorption of iron, zinc, bisphosphonates and tetracycline.
  • Absorption also requires adequate doses of vitamin D.
  • The recommended daily intake of vitamin D is 200 IU for adults younger than 50 years and 600 IU for those older than 70 years. Vitamin D supplementation is especially important in elderly persons because skin synthesis and absorption of vitamin D may be impaired.

What is the best time to take calcium?

  • Calcium supplements-- calcium citrate or calcium malate is absorbed better than calcium carbonate because it has an acid component, and you need acid to digest calcium. ... Before bedtime is a good time to take calcium and magnesium. It will help you sleep and eliminate those muscle cramps.However, the amount of calcium your body actually absorbs can vary greatly.
  • Interestingly, if you eat a meal containing more than 500 mg of calcium, your body will absorb much less of it than if you consume a lower amount.
  • To maximize your absorption of calciumtakeno more than 500 mg at a time. You might take one 500 mg supplement in the morning and another at night. If you take a supplement that also contains vitamin D, it will help your body absorb calcium more efficiently.It's also best to get calcium from foods rather than supplements.
  • A recent 10-year study of 1,567 people found that although high calcium intake from foods decreased the risk of heart disease overall, those who took calcium supplements had a 22% greater risk of heart disease 

Does taking calcium at night help you sleep?

  • Calcium helpsthe brain use the amino acid tryptophan to manufacture the sleep-inducing substance melatonin. This explains why dairy products, which contain both tryptophan and calcium, are one of the top sleep-inducing foods.“
  • To maximize your absorption of calciumtakeno more than 500 mg at a time. You might take one 500 mg supplement in the morning and another at night. If you take a supplement that also contains vitamin D, it will help your body absorb calcium more efficiently.
  • Before bedtime is a good time to take calcium and magnesium. It will help you sleep and eliminate those muscle cramps

Calcium and diet

  • Good dietary sources of calcium include:
  • Almonds
  • Oranges
  • Dried figs
  • Soybeans
  • Garbanzo, white and pinto beans
  • Low-fat dairy such as milk and yogurt
  • Leafy green vegetables such as kale, spinach and broccoli
  • Fish with edible soft bones, such as sardines and canned salmon
  • Calcium-fortified foods and beverages, such as soy products, cereal and fruit juices, and milk substitutes
  • To absorb calcium, your body also needs vitamin D. A few foods naturally contain small amounts of vitamin D, such as canned salmon with bones and egg yolks. You can also get vitamin D from fortified foods and sun exposure. The RDA for vitamin D is 600 international units (15 micrograms) a day for most adults.

What interferes with the absorption of calcium?

  • Other components in food: phytic acid and oxalic acid, found naturally in some plants, bind to calciumand can inhibit its absorption. Foods with high levels of oxalic acid include spinach, collard greens, sweet potatoes, rhubarb, and beans.
  • Calcium absorption is vitamin D-dependent; therefore bioavailability depends upon vitamin Dintake and status.

Can you reverse osteoporosis without drugs?

  • Healthy lifestyle choices such as proper diet, exercise, and medications can help prevent further bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures. But, lifestyle changes may not be enough if you have lost a lot of bone density. ... Some will slow your bone loss, and others can help rebuild bone.
  • Here are 10 natural ways to build healthy bones.
  • Eat Lots of Vegetables. ...
  • Perform Strength Training and Weight-Bearing Exercises. ...
  • Consume Enough Protein. ...
  • Eat High-Calcium Foods Throughout the Day. ...
  • Get Plenty of Vitamin D and Vitamin K. ...
  • Avoid Very Low-Calorie Diets. ...
  • Consider Taking a Collagen Supplement.
  • Maintain a Stable, Healthy Weight
  • Include Foods High in Magnesium and Zinc
  • Consume Foods High in Omega-3 Fats
  • Vitamin Dand vitamin K are extremely important for building strong bones.
  • Vitamin D plays several roles in bone health, including helping your body absorb calcium. Achieving a blood level of at least 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l) is recommended for protecting against osteopenia, osteoporosis and other bone diseases
  • Indeed, studies have shown that children and adults with low vitamin D levels tend to have lower bone density and are more at risk for bone loss than people who get enough
  • Unfortunately, vitamin D deficiency is very common, affecting about one billion people worldwide
  • You may be able to get enough vitamin D through sun exposure and food sources such as fatty fish, liver and cheese. However, many people need to supplement with up to 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily to maintain optimal levels.
  • Vitamin K2supports bone health by modifying osteocalcin, a protein involved in bone formation. This modification enables osteocalcin to bind to minerals in bones and helps prevent the loss of calcium from bones.

What medications should you not take with calcium?

  • Calcium affects the absorption of some common drugs, including certain antibiotics (fluoroquinolone and tetracyclines), bisphosphonates (for osteoporosis), levothyroxine (a thyroid medicine) and some diuretics. You'll probably need to take calcium and these several hours apart.
  • These medications can cause high calcium levels:
  • Lithium
  • Diuretics: Thiazide diuretics like hydrochlorothiazideand chlorthalidone 
  • Calcium supplements: 
  • Vitamin D supplements: Vitamin D supplements like calcipotriol
  • These medications can cause low calcium levels:
  • Bisphosphonates: like ibandronate(Boniva) and alendronate (Fosamax), zoledronic acid (Zometa)
  • Prolia (Denosumab):is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who have high risk of bone fracture.
  • Sensipar (Cinacalcet):is indicated for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis.
  • Phenytoin
  • Cisplatin

Who should consider calcium supplements?

  • Even if you eat a healthy, balanced diet, you may find it difficult to get enough calcium if you:
  • Follow a vegan diet
  • Have lactose intolerance and limit dairy products
  • Consume large amounts of protein or sodium, which can cause your body to excrete more calcium
  • Have osteoporosis
  • Are receiving long-term treatment with corticosteroids
  • Have certain bowel or digestive diseases that decrease your ability to absorb calcium, such as inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease
  • In these situations, calcium supplements may help you meet your calcium requirements. Talk to your doctor or dietitian to determine if calcium supplements are right for you.

What are the side effects of taking calcium with vitamin D?

  • Calcium and vitamin D combination is used to prevent or to treat a calcium deficiency.
  • Less serious side effects may include:
  • an irregular heartbeat;
  • nausea, vomiting, or decreased appetite;
  • dry mouth;
  • constipation;
  • weakness;
  • headache;
  • a metallic taste;
  • muscle or bone pain; or

What are the side effects of too much calcium?

  • Too much calciumin your blood can weaken your bones, create kidney stones, and interfere with how your heart and brain work. ... Other causes of hypercalcemia include cancer, certain other medical disorders, some medications, and taking too much of calcium and vitamin D supplements.
  • these signs hint that your calcium levels might be flying high:
  • Bone pain.
  • Fatigue and lethargy.
  • Frequent urination and thirst.
  • Nausea, constipation and/or loss of appetite.
  • Muscle aches, weakness or cramping.
  • Memory problems, irritability and depression.
  • low phosphate levels.
  • milk-alkali syndrome.

What foods block calcium absorption?

  • Caffeinemay very modestly reduce calcium absorption (by about 4 mg of calcium per cup of coffee), but this can be offset completely by adding 1–2 tablespoons of milk to your coffee.
  • Other components in food: phytic acid and oxalic acid, found naturally in some plants, bind to calciumand can inhibit its absorptionFoods with high levels of oxalic acid include spinach, collard greens, sweet potatoes, rhubarb, and beans.
  • Spinach is naturally high in calcium, but it is also high in oxalic acid. The body is unable to process the calcium it provides.
  • Chocolate contains oxalate — a naturally occurring compound in cocoa beans — which can inhibit the absorption of calcium. The jury is still out, however, on whether chocolate causes problems for healthy people who eat calcium-rich diets.
  • On the plus side, dark chocolate (or cocoa) contains flavonoids, which are thought to be beneficial to health. Further research is needed to fully determine the role chocolate plays in calcium balance and bone health.

Does coffee leach calcium from bones?

  • the effect of caffeine is weakened in individuals who are getting enough calcium in their diet (e.g., 1,000 to 1,200 mg from total of food and supplements). Caffeine may very modestly reduce calcium absorption (by about 4 mg of calcium per cup of coffee), but this can be offset completely by adding 1–2 tablespoons of milk to your coffee.
  • If you have a good calcium and vitamin D intake, there is little reason for concern about moderate caffeine intake on your bones (e.g., up to 6 cups of coffee or tea) although it could raise your blood pressure or increase your heart rate.

Does calcium make you gain weight?

  • Data suggest that a diet deficient in calciumis associated with higher body weight and that augmenting calcium intake may reduce weight and fat gain or enhance loss.
  • To summarize, our results showed supplementation of calciumplus vitamin D3 for 12 weeks facilitated body fat and visceral fat loss during energy restriction in overweight or obese very-low calcium

Does calcium make you gain weight?

  • Data suggest that a diet deficient in calciumis associated with higher body weight and that augmenting calcium intake may reduce weight and fat gain or enhance loss.
  • To summarize, our results showed supplementation of calciumplus vitamin D3 for 12 weeks facilitated body fat and visceral fat loss during energy restriction in overweight or obese very-low calcium

What vitamins should you not take with calcium?

  • It's also a good idea to takeyour calcium supplements at a different time from your multivitamin or an iron-rich meal. Calcium can affect how your body absorbs iron, zinc and magnesium.

Does calcium and vitamin D cause stroke?

  • Low blood levels of vitamin Dhave been linked to a higher heart disease risk. But taking vitamin D supplements does not appear to lower that risk. Some evidence hints that taking calcium and vitamin D together might slightly increase the risk of stroke. But the largest study to date found no increased stroke risk

Does calcium cause hair loss?

calcium deficiency may lead to dry, broken, and brittle nails. It can also contribute to alopecia, a condition that causes hair to fall out in round patches.

How can osteoporosis be prevented?

To promote lifelong healthy bones and reduce calcium loss:

  • Eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D throughout your life
  • Enjoy regular exercise, especially weight-bearing activity like walking or jogging
  • Don't smoke
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